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Could all those who are either on the Aus 2010 trip or hope to be start reading and digesting this information.

1.1 Controlled airspace

airspace_radar_south.png

Most controlled airspace exists between a lower level (e.g. 8500 feet amsl) and some upper level (e.g. 18 000 feet amsl — or FL180) and is designated as a Control Area [CTA]. Four of the International Civil Aviation Organisation [iCAO] controlled airspace classes are currently used in Australia; A,C, D and E.

Please note: RA-Aus Pilot Certificate holders may not fly an RA-Aus registered aircraft in Class A, C or D airspace unless they also hold a current and valid pilot licence issued by the Civil Aviation Safety Authority, or unless CASA has issued a written approval for a particular flight or flights. The International Civil Aviation Organisation does not recognise a 'pilot certificate' as a 'pilot licence'.

Controlled airspace surrounding a civil or military aerodrome with a manned Air Traffic Control tower is a Control Zone [CTR] and starts at ground level and is stepped up to the lower limit of the overlying CTA. The steps provide the airspace for the airport approach and departure paths.

Airspace diagram

In Australia, Class A is high level en route airspace and Class C surrounds major city airports starting at ground level and stepped up into mid level Class C or the high level Class A airspace.

The controlled airspace — generally within secondary surveillance radar [sSR] coverage — between Sydney and Melbourne is designated Class E between 8500 feet amsl and FL125, Class C between FL125 and FL180 and Class A above that.

The controlled airspace — generally within SSR coverage — between Sydney and Cairns is designated Class E between 8500 feet and FL180, Class A above that.

airspace_radar_north.png

Control zones at smaller regional airports (which lack primary radar coverage) are Class D airspace, but only active as such when the control tower at that CTR is manned; the airspace starts at the surface and is stepped up into Class C approach/departure airspace. The upper boundary of Class D is usually 4500 feet amsl.

CAO 95.55 and CAO 95.32 aircraft may only enter and fly in Class A, C and D airspace if they meet all the conditions specified in CAO 95.55 paragraph 5.2 and CAO 95.32 paragraph 5.2. CAO 95.10 has no allowance for entry into Class A, C and D airspace.

airspace_non_radar.png

Class E airspace

Australian Class E is mid level en route airspace the general base of which is at 8500 feet amsl within SSR coverage; and at FL180 in the remaining continental area but there are three Class E corridors with the base at FL125 and extending up to the overlying Class A. All aircraft require a clearance from ATC before entering Class A, B and C airspace; however, VHF radio equipped VFR aircraft (including RA-Aus aircraft) may operate in Class E airspace without an Air Traffic clearance, but the pilot must:

* maintain a listening watch on an appropriate frequency

* fly VFR cruising altitudes below 10 000 feet (or cruising flight levels above the transition layer)

* activate anti-collision lights

* and be equipped with a properly functioning Mode A/C or S transponder with code 1200 selected and operating.

In addition, the aircraft altimeter should be accurate to within 100 feet. There is a general transponder exemption (AIP GEN 1.5 para 6.1.2) for aircraft not equipped with an engine-driven electrical system capable of continuously powering a transponder. Some specific transponder exemption conditions may be allowed subject to prior agreement with ATC; see AIP GEN 1.5 para 6.2.2. AIP refers to the Aeronautical Information Publications; see below.

RA-Aus aircraft operating in Class E must be equipped with a serviceable VHF communications system. The AIP Book is perhaps at variance with the CARs and CAOs so it is not absolutely clear that a hand-held unit is acceptable in controlled airspace. Hand-held transceivers approved by the Australian Communications and Media Authority are acceptable for use in RA-Aus registered aircraft operating in Class G airspace. See AIP GEN section 1.5 paragraphs 1.1, 1.2 and 1.5.

The pinkish tinge covering most of the continent in the image below indicates the general FL180 Class E base, the tan colour indicates the areas within radar coverage where the Class E base is either at 8500 feet or FL125 and the green indicates where the Class E doesn't exist (i.e. Class C CTRs extend up to the base of Class A airspace) or Class C extends to the upper level of a Class D CTR.

Class E Airspace diagram In Class E, all flights operating under the instrument flight rules [iFR] are provided with an air traffic control separation service; hence, it is controlled airspace even though VFR flights within the same airspace are not provided with a traffic separation service — though they may be provided with a radar information service [RIS] on request if the controllers have the capacity to do so. However, "due to the nature and type of radar coverage (in Class E), not all aircraft will be observed on radar". An aircraft operating under the VFR that encounters instrument meteorological conditions must then obtain a clearance to continue the flight under the IFR.

classE.gif

GAAP airspace

In Australia, there are five major city airfields which are dedicated to General Aviation purposes (i.e. no regular public transport [RPT] operations) for which some non-ICAO standard control zone procedures apply. Ministerial airspace policy defined GAAP as an 'additional air traffic control procedure termed General Aviation Airport Procedures used in Class D airspace'.

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1.2 Class G airspace

In Australia, all airspace which is not promulgated as class A, C, D, E, GAAP or 'special use' (see below) is Class G and open without restriction for flight at or below 5000 feet amsl to all holders of a valid RA-Aus Pilot Certificate flying any RA-Aus registered aircraft. Class G extends over most of Australia from surface level to the overlying Class E base at 8500 feet amsl, FL125 or FL180. Airservices Australia provides a VHF or HF radio flight information service [FIS] for aircraft operating in Class G. The information service is provided within flight information areas [FIA] and the information delivered, via VHF or HF radio, includes weather and NOTAMs (see below). FIS also provides the SARWATCH search and rescue monitoring service. These FIAs are contained within two administrative regions known as Flight Information Regions [FIRs] one headquartered in Brisbane, the other in Melbourne.

* All powered aircraft operating at or above 10 000 feet amsl, whether in controlled or Class G airspace, must be equipped with an operating Mode A/C or S transponder, and Australian Civil Aviation Order part 20.4 specifies use of supplemental oxygen systems.

Operations at aerodromes in Class G

To maintain safe separation at aerodromes in G airspace pilots are required to exercise 'see and avoid' techniques supplemented by VHF monitoring and broadcasting procedures designed to maintain traffic awareness and to self-administer circuit priorities, where appropriate, in the vicinity of such aerodromes. Discrete radio frequencies known as common traffic advisory frequencies [CTAFs] are assigned for use in those circumstances.

Carriage of VHF radio is generally not mandatory — but highly recommended. However, there are some Class G aerodromes — usually those which have daily RPT movements — where the carriage and use of VHF radio, confirmed to be functioning on the CTAF, is mandatory for all aircraft (including ultralights) operating at that airfield. When operating at any non-controlled airfield all radio-equipped (whether fixed installation or hand-held) aircraft, including ultralights, must make the standard broadcasts on the CTAF. Some non-controlled aerodromes may have a private ground based UNICOM communications operator. (Note that non-controlled aerodromes are now usually referred to as non-towered aerodromes.)

The radio procedures required when operating in the vicinity of non-towered aerodromes are defined in the online Aeronautical Information Publication (see below) section ENR 1.1 paragraphs 56–65 "Operations in G airspace". If operating at, or in the vicinity of, an airfield within Class G airspace which does not have a designated CTAF then standard radio procedures should still be used and the calls made on the default multicom frequency of 126.7 MHz.

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1.3 Restricted and danger areas

Special use airspace, extending to varying heights, is defined on the charts used for air navigation and identified as P, R or D areas. For safety reasons flight into special use airspace may be 'prohibited' or 'restricted', or some may just be marked 'danger area' as a warning to take extra care. Flight within a prohibited area is forbidden at all times but usually there are only temporary prohibited areas in Australia.

Restricted areas are mostly military training and weapons firing ranges and extend from a lower level (often the surface) to an upper level. Flight within those areas may be restricted at all times, or may be allowed at times when the restricted area is not activated The charts show a reference number which refers to a detail entry in the Airservices publication 'En Route Supplement - Australia'. Details of the activation of restricted areas are promulgated by Airservices Australia in the form of NOTAMs (see below).

Danger or alert areas usually relate to mining or quarrying sites, and to special aviation activities such as fixed training areas or aerobatic areas; it may be prudent to avoid such areas, but there is no restriction on entry. Other special use areas, for example those for hang-gliding or radio-controlled model aircraft flying, are also symbolically marked on aeronautical charts, as a warning device, but there are no details available in any publication. Similarly mines and quarries marked on charts, but not within a danger area, should only be overflown at a safe height to avoid blasting debris.

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1.4 Aeronautical information publications, ERSA and NOTAMs

AIP Book

Airservices Australia produces various books, charts and other documents which together make up the 'Aeronautical Information Publication Australia' [AIP]. The primary document is the AIP Book containing longer term reference information of rules and procedures written in plain language covering civilian operations in Australian airspace.

In the AIP book the term 'should' implies that users are encouraged to conform with the procedure, whereas the term 'must' (or 'shall') means that the procedure is mandatory and is supported by CARs or CAOs.

Amendments are issued quarterly and supplements are issued monthly. Not a vital document for the individual ultralight pilot to hold in print form — and it is an ongoing task to cope with the amendments — but each ultralight club and flight school should maintain an AIP Book amendment subscription.

The three sections of the AIP Book are 'General', 'En route' and 'Aerodromes'. The sub-sections of most interest to Ultralight Aviation are:

* General [AIP GEN]

GEN 1.5.1 — Radio communications systems

GEN 2.2 — Definitions and abbreviations

GEN 2.3 — Chart symbols

GEN 2.7 — Sunrise/sunset tables

GEN 3.2 — Aeronautical charts

GEN 3.3 — Air traffic services

GEN 3.4 — Communications services

GEN 3.5 — Meteorological services

GEN 3.6 — Search and rescue

* En route [AIP ENR]

ENR 1.1 — Operations in Class G airspace

ENR 1.1 — Operational requirements — general

ENR 1.2 — Visual flight rules

ENR 1.4 — ATS airspace classification

ENR 1.7 — Altimeter setting procedures

ENR 5.5 — Aerial sporting and recreational activities

* Aerodromes [AIP AD]

AD 1.1 — Aerodromes/heliports availability

En Route Supplement

The AIP 'En Route Supplement Australia' [ERSA] is recommended to all pilots with a cross country endorsement, being an essential document for cross country flight planning and operations. ERSA contains details of PRD areas, area weather forecast codes and weather report decodes, pre-flight and in-flight information services, navigation aids and emergency procedures.

However, its main purpose is to provide, within the facilities [FAC] section, full details of all licensed aerodromes [ADs] with current updates relating to those aerodromes available via NOTAM. The aerodrome entry includes the VHF and HF frequencies used for air traffic services, self-announce broadcasts, flight information service, Unicom and automated weather information services. ERSA also lists limited detail of many unlicensed airfields — ALAs or 'Aircraft Landing Areas' is the official jargon — but NOTAMs are not issued for ALAs. There is no information regarding recognised water alighting areas for seaplanes.

Airservices Australia publishes online versions of the AIP Book and ERSA at www.airservicesaustralia.com/publications/aip.asp. Click the 'I agree' button to gain entry. To find a particular section of AIP or ERSA you have to click through a number of index pages. The section/sub-section/paragraph numbering system was designed for a readily amendable loose leaf print document and you may find it a little confusing as an on-line document.

NOTAMs

NOTAMs, derived from the old term 'notices to airmen', are issued by Airservices Australia and contain "information or instructions concerning the establishment, condition or change in any aeronautical facility, service, procedure or hazard, the timely knowledge of which is essential to persons concerned with flight operations." The NOTAMs (current at the time) are available from Airservices online pilot briefing service, which we discuss in the 'route planning' module.

The Australian Aircraft Owners and Pilots Association publishes biennially a very handy Airfield Directory, which has details of about 2000 airfields, including many that are not in ERSA. Contact information for the owners/operators is included but the communications and navigation aid frequencies shown may not be current. The cost is about $50.

A download of the Civil Aviation Safety Authority's free PDF version of their VFR Flight Guide is recommended. It is 10 MB but you can download in sections.

Check the Airservices Australia Publications Centre for purchase or subscription details for the publications mentioned. The charts within AIP are detailed in section 2.3.

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1.5 VMC and the visual flight rules

The two ICAO rule sets previously mentioned are the Instrument Flight Rules [iFR] and the Visual Flight Rules [VFR]. Aircraft operating under the IFR are navigated by reference to cockpit instruments which process data received from ground stations or satellites. IFR flights may operate in both visual meteorological conditions [VMC] or instrument meteorological conditions [iMC] — see below. VFR flights may only operate in VMC.

All national and international RPT jet flights into or between the major Australian cities would operate only in controlled airspace and under the IFR, but turbo-prop and piston engined regional RPT aircraft, travelling to or from a smaller city, may operate some route sectors in Class G and under the VFR. Charter and business aircraft would tend to operate both in controlled airspace under the IFR or the VFR and in Class G under the VFR. Agricultural aircraft would normally be operating in Class G and under the VFR and may be encountered working at low levels close to airfields. General Aviation training aircraft would tend to operate in and out of a CTR or GAAP under the VFR. Military aircraft operate everywhere but particularly important to light aircraft are their low jet routes where they may be flying at very low levels using terrain following radar.

Beware: fast flying camouflaged military aircraft may also be encountered at very low levels outside the designated low jet routes.

Visual Meteorological Conditions

Ultralight — and non-instrument rated pilot — operations may only be conducted in Visual Meteorological Conditions [VMC].The visual meteorological conditions (minima) applicable below 10 000 feet amsl, and thus the VMC for ultralight, and most light aircraft, operations (take-off, en route and landing) are:

* minimum average range of visibility forward from the cockpit — 5000 metres. ('Visibility' means the ability to see and identify prominent objects. A problem is that there may not be any prominent identifiable objects when flying over featureless areas. Also, few people are adept at judging distance from the cockpit.)

* horizontal cloud clearance — 1500 metres

* vertical cloud clearance — 1000 feet.

* If the visibility is less than 5000 metres or either cloud clearance is below the minima then Instrument Meteorological Conditions [iMC] exist.

vmc2.gif

If operating (in Class G airspace) at or below 3000 feet amsl or 1000 feet agl, whichever is the higher, an ultralight or other aircraft may operate 'clear of cloud' but remaining in sight of the ground; provided the aircraft is equipped with a serviceable VHF radio, the pilot has a radio endorsement and the pilot listens out and transmits on the appropriate area frequency. Note that a non-radio-equipped aeroplane can then only operate in conditions where the cloud base is 1000 feet above the flight level, thus such an aircraft can only take-off and land when the cloud base is 1000 feet higher than the circuit height and the horizontal cloud clearance is at least 1500 metres. Even when there is no regulatory requirement the carriage of VHF radio, and the continual maintenance of a listening watch, is highly recommended.

(The image above is courtesy of CASA's Flight Safety Australia, March–April 2002 issue)

Visual Flight Rules

The Visual Flight Rules applicable to ultralight, and most light aircraft, operations are primarily 'see and avoid' other traffic, plus the following specifics:

* VMC must be maintained during the entire flight (climb, cruise and descent) and the flight conducted in daylight hours

* the pilot must be able to navigate by reference to the ground

* and position fixes must be taken at least every 30 minutes.

VFR 'on top'

In addition an aircraft cannot be operated on top of cloud which is more extensive than scattered unless it is fitted with serviceable flight and navigation instruments as specified in CAO 20.18 appendix IV — which includes an artificial horizon and directional gyro. Other restrictions apply, see AIP ENR 1.1 para. 19.2. Taking all into account it is probably unwise for an ultralight aircraft to operate above any cloud cover. See adverse weather.

Quiz question

"You are at an airfield (elevation 2700 feet and situated in flat terrain) and the base of an extensive layer of stratocumulus has been confirmed as 4000 feet amsl but visibility exceeds 10 km. Can you legally take off in an ultralight and depart the airfield?"

Ultralight operations (or any flight operation where the pilot in command [PIC] does not hold an instrument flight rating) may only be conducted in VMC and flight below 500 feet agl is forbidden except when taking off or descending to land. The visual meteorological conditions applicable below 10 000 feet amsl, and thus the VMC for ultralight operations (take-off, en route and landing) are:-

* Visibility: 5000 metres

* Horizontal cloud clearance: 1500 metres

* Vertical cloud clearance: 1000 feet

If operating at or below 3000 feet amsl or 1000 feet agl, whichever is the higher, an ultralight may operate 'clear of cloud' but in sight of the ground, provided the aircraft is equipped with a serviceable VHF radio, the pilot has a radio endorsement and the pilot listens out and transmits on the appropriate area frequency.

Thus take-off for an ultralight which is not equipped with a serviceable radio would not be legal. The minimum altitude that a non-radio flight could be undertaken is 3200 feet amsl [2700 elevation plus 500 agl] and the vertical cloud clearance is then only 800 feet. However a radio equipped aircraft would be legal provided operations were conducted between 500 and 1000 feet agl, thus 'clear of cloud'. The rationale for this is that radio provides the ability to alert other aircraft — possibly operating in the same restricted flight conditions — to your presence.

VFR cruising altitudes

Flights operating in Class G under the VFR must fly at cruising altitudes selected in accordance with the table below when at a height above 5000 feet amsl and, whenever practicable, should be operated at such altitudes when below 5000 feet. The cruising altitudes for aircraft operating under the IFR are in 1000 feet steps thus 5000 feet amsl is an IFR cruising level and not available to VFR aircraft. Operating in accordance with the cruising altitudes does improve safety but pilots should be aware that the risk of collision still exists, for example consider an aircraft tracking 175° while to the south another aircraft is tracking 005° at the same correct altitude. Those two aircraft could well be closing on a collision course.

vfrcruise.gif

Note: there are no cruising levels available in the transition layer so VFR aircraft may not use 10 500 feet [FL105], and 11 500 feet [FL115] is not available if Area QNH is below 997 hPa.

Flight at the control area boundary

AIP ENR 1.4 para. 1.1.7 states: "When ATS airspaces adjoin vertically (one above the other), flights at the common level must comply with the requirements of, and the services provided will be in accordance with, the airspace of lower alphabetical classification (where A is the highest and G is the lowest)."

Thus if the lower limit of a Class C control area step was 5500 feet with Class G below a VFR aircraft could legitimately cruise at 5500 feet in that area without requiring ATC clearance; provided of course that height keeping is good, the altimeter is very accurate and the correct QNH is set. Air Traffic controllers keep aircraft at 500 feet plus above the lower level of the controlled airspace to provide clearance from Class G traffic. However be aware that the wake turbulence from heavy aircraft sinks — and drifts downwind. Also there is a problem with selecting which QNH altimeter setting to choose. So, taking everything into account, it is not a good idea to fly at the airspace intersection level.

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1.6 Ultralight flight operations

RA-Aus registered ultralight aircraft must operate in VMC and in Class G or Class E, except if in receipt of special permission (see below) to operate within a Class C, D or GAAP control zone — such permissions are usually applied on a long-term basis and only to pilots who also hold a valid pilot licence plus the RA-Aus Pilot Certificate.

* Ultralights operating within Class E airspace should be radio and transponder equipped, see Class E airspace above.

* Suitably equipped ultralights should also operate under the VFR, the minimum equipment list [MEL] required to do so is just a serviceable magnetic compass, altimeter (accurate to 100 feet) and air speed indicator, plus an accurate watch or clock available to the pilot.

* Ultralight aircraft operations should be confined to airspace below 5000 feet amsl. "An ultralight may be flown above 5000 feet amsl only if it is flying over an area of land, or water, the condition, and location, of which is such that, during the flight, the aeroplane would be unable to land with a reasonable expectation of avoiding injury to persons on board the aeroplane." This restriction may be rescinded during 2009.

* All aircraft, including ultralights, operating above 5000 feet amsl, must be equipped with a serviceable VHF radio; and the pilot, with an appropriate radio endorsement, must make the broadcasts specified in AIP.

Ultralight operations in Class C, D and GAAP

To operate in Class C, D and GAAP control zones the ultralight aircraft and the engine must either be certificated to the design standards specified in CAO 101.55 or meet criteria specified elswhere (see para. 5.2 in both CAO 95.32 and CAO 95.55), be fitted with a certificated or CASA approved engine and CASA approved (rather than ACMA approved) radio equipment and the pilot in command must hold a valid Pilot's Licence ( i.e. Private Pilot Licence — PPL, Commercial Pilot Licence — CPL, Air Transport Pilot Licence — ATPL) in addition to the Pilot Certificate. Even so it is unlikely that, if it came to a judicial test, an ultralight would be legally be able to operate from, or enter, a GAAP as the 'lanes of entry' to such airfields usually involve overflight of built-up areas and overlying controlled airspace may severely limit available altitude (and thus gliding distance) in such lanes. CAO 95.10 aircraft may not be operated in Class C, D and GAAP control zones.

Ultralights must comply with the Flight Conditions specified in the relevant CAO (95.10. 95.32 or 95.55). For example Section 5 of both CAO 95.10 and CAO 95.55 forbids flight below 500 feet agl and flight over cities and towns "at a height from which it cannot glide clear of all dwellings, buildings and persons within the built-up area". Be mindful that it is the legal responsibility of the pilot to ensure compliance with CAO 95.55 and other regulations, not the ATS personnel. Air Traffic Controllers presume that the pilot of any aircraft requesting entry into their airspace is legally and practically qualified to do so and a subsequent airways clearance does not absolve the pilot of legal responsibility. Also bear in mind that the entities owning Class C, D and GAAP aerodromes (and others) may publish their own 'conditions of use' which users should be aware of, and comply with.

Quiz question

"You are a prudent ultralight pilot planning a two hour flight to an airfield due east of you on a mild day with light easterly winds at levels up to 10 000 feet and clear skies. The terrain is open country at an elevation of about 800 — 1000 feet all the way with scattered minor hills. What altitude would you cruise at?

An aircraft operating under the Visual Flight Rules, and below 5000 feet amsl [area QNH], may cruise at any safe altitude. However a prudent ultralight pilot undertaking a two hour flight would choose a hemispherical VFR cruising altitude whenever practicable. For any aircraft heading with an easterly component the VFR cruising altitudes are 1500 and 3500 feet. The ultralight flight could be operated at a level above 5000 feet if safety considerations dictated so. Then the pilot could choose one of the three mandatory easterly cruising altitudes below 10 000 feet — 5500, 7500 or 9500 feet.

However this flight over open terrain in clear conditions would not warrant an ultralight intrusion above 5000 feet thus the only practicable cruising level available to a prudent pilot is 3500 feet, about 2500 feet above the general terrain.

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1.7 Communication and navigation aids

Civil aviation radio communications are primarily conducted in the aviation VHF communications [COMMS] band, 118.00 to 136.975 MHz, where, at 0.025 MHz steps, there are 760 channels possible. However in the less accessible areas of Australia, where there is no VHF ground coverage, communications must be in the various HF network bands between 3400 and 9500 kHz. The PCA shows VHF coverage (but not FIA boundaries or frequencies) and the appropriate short wave frequencies in the three domestic HF Network Areas. Military aircraft primarily use UHF communications.

There is an inter-pilot air-to-air communications frequency available at 123.45 MHz. More information on frequency allocation for club, sport aviation and other aviation activities is contained in the aircraft station operating frequencies section of the VHF Radiocommunications Guide.

In Australia the VHF Omni-directional Radio Range [VOR] primary air route, homing and position fixing navigation aids operate in the 112.1 to 117.975 MHz aviation VHF navigation [NAV] band. The Instrument Landing System runway localisers, at larger airports, operate in the 108.00 to 112.00 MHz VHF NAV band. Thus the aviation VHF NAV/COMM band is from 108.00 to 136.975 MHz with some 200 channels (at 0.05 MHz intervals) in the NAV band and 760 in the COMMS band. Some handheld airband COMMS transceivers have a very limited VOR receiver capability, but the full NAV/COMM capability is confined to more expensive panel-mounted transceivers/VOR receivers/VOR indicators coupled to a VOR antenna.

Non-directional aviation radio beacons [NDBs], installed to provide a homing facility for smaller aircraft, transmit in medium wave bands between 190 and 535 kHz, but the companion airborne automatic direction finding receivers [ADFs] can also pick up transmissions in the 520 to 1611 kHz AM broadcast band; depending on the power output of the radio station. The broadcasting frequency, latitude and longitude, power output in kW and the height of the mast agl (quite a few are over 600 feet agl and situated on the high ground) for all AM broadcast stations, is contained in the ERSA NAV/COMM section. The location of some AM broadcast stations' transmitter masts is shown on WACs, with the station identification but not the frequency. Most licensed aerodromes have an NDB and many would have a VOR.

1.8 Distress frequencies and AusSAR

When a pilot is experiencing in-flight difficulties it is advisable to inform others as early as practical and to advise whether the pilot considers the situation to be an emergency or something less. The frequency on which a distress call ( a MAYDAY transmission) or an urgency message ( a PAN-PAN transmission) is made should be that which is likely to provide a quick response: for example if other aircraft are known to be using a local CTAF use that, otherwise use the area frequency.

If a registered civil or ultralight aircraft crashes away from a controlled aerodrome or is reported missing, Australian Search and Rescue [AusSAR] has national responsibility for coordinating the search and rescue. More information is contained in the safety and emergency procedures module of the 'Coping with Emergencies Guide'.

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